The Dumpster

History. The word “dumpster”, first used commercially in 1936, came from the Dempster-Dumpster system of mechanically loading the contents of standardized containers onto garbage trucks, which was patented by Dempster Brothers in 1935.

The containers were called Dumpsters, a blending of the company’s name with the word dump. The Dempster Dumpmaster, which became the first successful front-loading garbage truck that used this system, popularized the word.

3 Most Common Types of Dumpsters
  • Debris dumpsters– Debris dumpsters are the most common and most versatile type of dumpster rental.
  • Concrete/Asphalt/Dirt dumpsters– The second most common type of dumpster rental is for masonry/asphalt products.
  • Yard debris– The third most common type of dumpster rental is for yard debris.

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A dumpster is a type of movable garbage bin designed to be brought and taken away by a special truck, or to a bin that a specially designed garbage truck lifts, empties into its hopper, and lowers, on the spot. The word is a genericized trademark of Dumpster, an American brand name for a specific design.


The main purpose of a dumpster is to store rubbish until it is emptied by a garbage truck and disposed of. Dumpsters can be used for all kinds of waste, or for recycling purposes. Most dumpsters are emptied weekly by a hired rubbish removal service.

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Many businesses, apartment buildings, schools, offices, and industrial sites have one or more dumpsters, generally ranging from 2 to 6 cubic yards, to store the waste that they generate. Dumpsters are emptied by front-loading garbage trucks. These trucks have large prongs on the front which are aligned and inserted into arms (or slots) on the dumpster. Hydraulics then lift the prongs and the dumpster, eventually flipping the dumpster upside-down and emptying its contents into the truck’s hopper (storage compartment). Other dumpsters are smaller and are emptied by rear-loading trucks.




Transit Bus

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A transit bus (also big bus, commuter bus, city bus, town bus, stage bus, public bus) is a type of bus used on shorter-distance public transport bus services. Several configurations are used, including low-floor buses, high-floor buses, double-decker buses, articulated buses and midibuses.

Generally, a transit bus will have:

  • large and sometimes multiple doors for ease of boarding and exiting
  • minimal or no luggage space
  • bench or bucket seats, with no coachlike head-rests
  • destination blinds / displays such as headsigns or rollsigns or electronic dot matrix/LED signs
  • legal standing-passenger capacity
  • fare taking/verification equipment
  • pullcord or bus stop request button

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Port Authority of Allegheny County is the public transit agency for the greater Pittsburgh area, providing bus, light rail, incline and paratransit service to about 230,000 riders daily. Its largest transit agency in southwestern Pennsylvania.  The Authority operates a total of 102 routes, including 98 bus, 3 light rail and 1 incline.

For bus service and the “T” – Pittsburgh’s light rail system – pay as you enter at the front door. This policy is in effect at all times.

You can transfer between the 28X (from the Pittsburgh International Airport) and most other Port Authority bus or “T” routes in downtown Pittsburgh. A transfer costs $1 for those with a ConnectCard and is good for three hours in any direction aboard a connecting vehicle. Request a transfer from the operator before paying your fare. Riders paying with cash will pay $2.75. Exact change is required when paying with cash as bus drivers do not carry change. Travel within Downtown and the North Shore is free 24/7 on the “T”.

ConnectCard users also receive unlimited 15-minute free rides using Healthy Ride a bike share system that allows transit users to shorten the time between their origin or destination and the bus stop.

ConnectCard is a reusable plastic smart card that makes paying your fares faster, easier and more secure than paying with cash.



Pittsburgh Inclines

The city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania once had a number of inclined railways. Most have been removed; only two: the Duquesne Incline and Monongahela Incline, are still in operation, carrying passengers between Mount Washington and the Monongahela River.

Today, only the historic Monongahela Incline, still the world’s steepest, and the Duquesne Incline, owned by the Port Authority, are still in existence. The Pittsburgh Incline Plane, known as the Knoxville Incline. Altogether, there were a total of twenty-three inclines built on the hillsides of Pittsburgh.


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Designed by Samuel Diescher, the Duquesne incline was completed in 1877 and is 800 feet (244 m) long, 400 feet (122 m) in height, and is inclined at a 30-degree angle. It is an unusual track gauge of 5 ft (1,524 mm).

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Designed by John Endres the Monongahela incline is 635 feet long, with a grade of 35 degrees, 35 minutes, and an elevation of 369.39 feet.




The Metal Construction Association

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The Metal Construction Association is an organization of manufacturers and suppliers whose metal products are used in structures throughout the world. Since it was formed in 1983, MCA has focused on one key strategy – to promote the use of metal in the building envelope through marketing, education, and action on public policies that affect metal’s use.

MCA’s marketing and technical activities create awareness of metal, its applications, and its benefits. MCA also works to eliminate barriers to metal’s use in construction by supporting product performance testing, initiating research, and monitoring and responding to codes and regulations that affect metal.

These well-established activities help educate building owners, designers, installers, educators and those who determine relevant codes and standards. The result – more metal products are chosen for a broader scope of projects.

MCA is a volunteer-led organization with much of the work achieved through strong leadership by its board of directors and member-driven MCA councils and committees. This is achieved via phone conferences, Webinars, as well as committee and council.

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The organization’s major annual event is the METALCON Exhibition and Conference, which MCA established in 1991. METALCON provides a multi-level learning experience through an exhibition of the latest products from leading industry companies, a comprehensive education program with AIA credit courses, and three days of live-action demonstrations. These interactive demos, produced by MCA members, put into action the latest concepts and products for commercial and residential.

Pittsburgh Sports Statues

Susan Wagner's Bill Mazeroski sculpture

Bill Mazeroski

This tribute captures the elation of Maz the day he made the Yankees cry. The greatest moment in Pittsburgh sports, and perhaps, Major League Baseball history is immortalized in a 14-foot, 2,000-pound piece of bronze. That glorious afternoon in October 1960. (The Maz was sculpted by local artist Susan Wagner).

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 Roberto Clemente

The Clemente statue sits at the end of the bridge named after him, down the road from the museum dedicated to him. In fact, it’s not even the only statue of the Great One in the country; New York and New Jersey also have statues of him. Not to mention the high schools and middle schools, a state park and a stadium named after him. The statue, like him, is great and shows him heading to first base after one of his 3,000 hits

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Franco Harris

Franco welcomes visitors from all over the world at the Pittsburgh International Airport. It’s odd in that it’s the only statue on the list that is painted. The piece depicts the exact moment when the fortunes of the Steelers organization changed forever.


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 Art Rooney

The Chief sits right beside Heinz Field, on a bench. The statue practically invites you to sit right next to it, as it conveys his renowned kindness. It’s also the only statue with a cigar in it. Rooney routinely received cigars as gifts from Frank Sinatra.


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 Willie Stargell

Captain Willie is about to crush a fastball like the one he knocked completely out of Dodgers Stadium, or the one where he cracked a plastic seat in the upper deck of Veterans Stadium, in Philadelphia. After the wrist-windmill batting routine, Willie would lean back slightly and wait to smash one of his 475 home runs. If you stand behind the statue at night, a street light from Downtown looks like a belt-high fastball he is about to destroy. Willie is the only one who could hit them into the cheap seats.

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 Mario Lemieux

The grandest of them all, “Le Magnifique” is 10 feet tall, 13 feet wide, and weighs 4,700 pounds. It’s unique that even his statue shows him dominating other people: The two losers depicted getting burned by Mario are Rich Pilon and Jeff Norton of the New York Islanders. Those players are skating toward the past, when the Islanders won four Stanley Cups, while Mario is on his way to four cups, two as a player and two as owner.




Pittsburgh Firsts

Pittsburgh Firsts

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First Cable Suspension Bridge (1846)

The Great Fire of 1845 destroyed much of the city, including the wooden Monongahela Bridge. Pittsburgher John Roebling, who developed wire cable in 1840, used it for the first cable suspension bridge, the Monongahela Bridge, in 1846.

Located at the confluence of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio rivers,Pittsburgh is known both as “the Steel City” for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the “City of Bridges” for its 446 bridges.

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First newspaper west of the Alleghenies (1786)

The paper began publication on July 29, 1786, as a four-page weekly, called The Gazette. As one of its first major articles, the Gazette published the newly adopted Constitution of the United States. In 1844, the paper became a morning daily paper. Following several mergers of newspapers in Pittsburgh, it became the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette in 1927.

First Ferris Wheel (1893)

Designed and constructed by George Washington Gale Ferris, Jr. the first Ferris Wheel was erected for the 1893 World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. This original wheel was manufactured in Pittsburgh by the Bethlehem Iron Company and had 36 cars, each able to accommodate 60 people, a total capacity of 2,160 people. The wheel took 20 minutes to complete two revolutions, which cost each rider 50 cents.

World’s First Commercial Radio Station (1920)

The first commercial radio signal was transmitted on Nov. 2, 1920 from a shack atop a Westinghouse building in East Pittsburgh, signifying the birth of the first commercial radio station, KDKA, which continues to transmit a signal today. Listeners tuned in to hear the election results of the Harding-Cox presidential election hours before papers hit the streets

First Ice Capades (1940)

The first Ice Capades performance was in Pittsburgh in 1940. In the early days, Ice Capades shows were highly theatrical, with vaudeville elements, including scantily-clad showgirls. Ice Capades shows were extremely popular for several decades and shows would often feature former Olympic figure skaters who had retired from amateur competition.

First All-Aluminum Building (1953)

The Regional Enterprise Tower, formerly the ALCOA Building, was completed in 1953. This 410-foot-tall skyscraper was originally the headquarters for ALCOA. The unique aluminum walls of the building are 1/8 inch thick, which gives the building a light weight and economical design. It was the first skyscraper with an all-aluminum facade.

First Polio Vaccine (1954)

The first injectable polio vaccine was developed by Jonas Salk and his team at the University of Pittsburgh. In 1952, the vaccine was tested at Arsenal Elementary School and the D.T. Watson Home for Crippled Children in Pittsburgh. In 1954, Salk’s vaccine was then used in a test called the Francis Field Trial, led by Thomas Francis, the largest medical experiment in history. On April 12, 1955, the results were announced; the vaccine was safe and effective. Salk’s vaccine was instrumental in the beginning the eradication of polio, a once widely-feared disease. Polio cases dropped 90% in the first two years of the vaccine’s use.

First U.S. Public Television Station (1954)

Established on April 1, 1954, it was the first community-sponsored television station in the United States as well as the fifth public television station. WQED also became the first station to telecast classes to elementary school classrooms when Pittsburgh launched the Metropolitan School Service in 1955. WQED has been the flagship station for Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood.

First Retractable Dome (1961)

Formerly the Civic Arena, it was originally designed for the Civic Light Opera and was home to the Pittsburgh Penguins between 1967 and 2010. The roof was divided into eight sections, six of the sections could fold underneath in two-and-a-half minutes, making the Civic Arena the world’s first major indoor sports stadium with a retractable roof. The first roof opening was during a July 4, 1962 Carol Burnett show to which she exclaimed, “Ladies and Gentleman… I present the sky!” Even though it was designed and engineered as a retractable-roof dome, the hydraulic jacks never functioned consistently, thus keeping the roof permanently closed after 1994. The Civic Arena closed on June 26, 2010, and demolition was completed March 31, 2012.

First Nighttime World Series Game (1971)

Game 4 of the 1971 World Series, played in Pittsburgh’s Three Rivers Stadium, matched the defending champion Baltimore Orioles against the Pittsburgh Pirates. This was the first-ever World Series game scheduled to be played at night. The Pirates ended up winning the series in seven games. This series also named Roberto Clemente as the Series MVP, the first Latino player to earn this honor.

First Internet emoticon, the smiley 🙂 (1982)

Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science research professor Scott Fahlman is credited with the invention of the smiley face emoticon. He suggested the emoticon on an electronic board in 1982 as a way for board readers to know when an author was joking. The text of Fahlman’s original post was lost for nearly 20 years but was later recovered from backup tapes.

First Robotics Institute (1979)

The Robotics Institute, a division of the School of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), was established in 1979, and was the first robotics department at any U.S. university. In 1988 CMU became the first university in the world offering a Ph.D. in Robotics.

First Oil Well (1859)

In 1859, Edwin Drake drilled the world’s first oil well in Titusville, Pa. Almost overnight, the quiet farming region boomed in much the same manner as the gold rush towns of the Wild West. Dozens of wells were drilled and towns sprang up around them literally overnight. Early during the boom, Titusville pumped out 25 barrels a day, within the first year, some wells were producing as many as 3,000 barrels per day, a small number compared to the millions of barrels produced today. Pennsylvania was actually responsible for almost half of the world’s oil production until the 1901 oil boom in Texas.

First Commercial Plate Glass Manufacturer (1883)

In 1883, the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (PPG Industries) became the first commercially successful U.S. producer of high-quality, thick flat glass using the plate process. The company was also the world’s first plate glass plant to fuel melting furnaces with local natural gas sources inspiring widespread industrial use of this clean-burning gas. In the 1990’s, PPG introduced Transition lenses to the world of vision. These photo chromatic lenses provide UV eye protection by automatically changing from clear to dark in full sun. Completed in 1984, their downtown headquarters is a distinctive post-modern building with an exterior of reflective glass and aluminum.

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Pittsburgh’s Famous Food

  • The Big Mac, the world’s most famous hamburger, was ‘invented’ near Pittsburgh by McDonald’s franchise owner Jim Delligatti in 1967 and distributed nationally in 1968.
  • Heinz Ketchup, invented in Pittsburgh by H.J. Heinz.
  • Pierogies, found at restaurants throughout Pittsburgh, reflect Pittsburgh’s Polish heritage. Cooked in butter, these delicious dumplings are stuffed with potato and other flavorings depending on the creativity and tradition of the cook.
  • Chipped Ham is one of Pittsburgh’s most famous foods. This spicy lunch meat made its debut in 1933 at Isaly’s, a locally based family chain of dairy stores. Former Pittsburghers are known to have it trucked or flown across the country when they get a hankering for this hometown favorite.
  • The Klondike Bar, another Isaly’s original, is a vanilla ice-cream bar dipped in pure chocolate and packaged in a familiar silver wrapper. They cost a nickel when Sam Isaly invented them in 1929.
  • Wedding Soup, that delectable Italian broth with tiny meatballs and rich egg pastina, is served throughout the city.
  • Fried Zucchini Strips – thin, crispy and savory, are a hometown original and popular as an appetizer.
  • Pittsburgh Salad‘ – take any salad and top with french fries.
  • Primanti Bros. Sandwich – A sandwich with the fries and coleslaw added right in. Invented during the Depression so that day laborers could hold their entire lunch in one hand.

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Famous Pittsburghers

  • Dancers/choregoraphers Martha Graham and Gene Kelly
  • Musicians Stephen Foster, Henry Mancini, Billy Strayhorn, Billy Eckstine and George Benson
  • Vocalists Lena Horne and Perry Como
  • Pulitzer Prize-winning writers August Wilson and Annie Dillard
  • Environmentalist and Silent Spring author Rachel Carson
  • Actors/Musicians Michael Keaton, The Vogues, Rusted Root, Christina Aguilera,Bobby Vinton, Jeff Goldblum and Dennis Miller
  • Football superstars Mike Ditka, Tony Dorsett, Joe Montana, Johnny Unitas, Joe Namath, Dan Marino, Jim Kelly and Gus Frerotte



Commercial Fire Escapes

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A fire escape consists of a number of horizontal platforms, one at each story of a building, with ladders or stairs connecting them. The platform and stairs are usually open steel gratings, to prevent the build-up of ice, snow, and leaves.

Commercial Fixed-Escape

  1. Cap prevents water from entering ladder column.
  2. Handle requires less than five pounds of force to deploy entire ladder.
  3. Stainless Steel Pivot Pins with nylon bushings prevent metal on metal contact and prevent rust and corrosion.
  4. Patented Opening Mechanism prevents unauthorized access yet allows any handle to deploy the entire ladder, regardless of height or number of handles.
  5. Extruded Aluminum Safety Rail adds safety and security during ascent or descent and enables assistance, if required.
  6. Two foot wide rungs with slip-resistant ribbed surface were tested under a 1,000 lb. static load for one hour by Underwriter’s Laboratories without breaking.
  7. Mounting Bracket attaches ladder to wall while allowing ladder to stand as a column directly on the ground.
  8. Ladder requires no special wall reinforcement or through-bolting since it does not hang on the building. A custom masonry expansion bolt is supplied or it can be lagged into framing.
  9. Individual rungs are counterweighted with stainless steel springs to allow the ladder to be easily closed, regardless of height.
  10. Extruded Anodized Aluminum construction permanently avoids rust and corrosion providing maintenance-free operation.
  11. Stainless Steel attachment bolts prevent rust or corrosion.
  12. Stainless Steel Baseplate prevents scratching, rust and corrosion.



Hydraulic Press Brake

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A press brake is a machine pressing tool for bending sheet and plate material, most commonly sheet metal. It forms predetermined bends by clamping the workpiece between a matching punch and die. It accurately positions a piece of metal so that the brake puts the bend in the correct place. The back gauge can be programmed to move between bends to repeatedly make complex parts. Early brakes relied on the tooling to determine the bend angle of the bend. A computer numeric controlled (CNC) piece of equipment makes precision bends, punches, or cuts into material. Brakes are classified according to tonnage and bed length. They can be fitted with various types of punches and dies to control the bend of the sheet.

press brake parts: the top tool or ram, the bottom tool, and the mechanism driving the ram, and the optional back gauge.

The smallest press brakes will use electric motors to drive a flywheel that presses the ram down. These are called mechanical presses.

Press brakes can produce either small parts or very long pieces with minimal tooling. They are useful in both low and medium production.

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A hydraulic press consists of basic components used in a hydraulic system that includes the cylinder, pistons, the hydraulic pipes, etc. The pressure is exerted on the larger cylinder and the piston in the master cylinder pushes the fluid back to the original cylinder.

press braking includes:

• Metal fabrication
• Metal fabrication
• Air bending technology
• Welding and fabrication
• Stainless steel work
• Sheet metalwork
• Plate metalwork
• Plasma and laser cutting

– Mechanical Press Brake – Economical but difficult to safe guard
– Hydraulic Press Brake –The most common press brake
– Pneumatic Press Brake – Air operated, used for small part bending
– Electronic Press Brakes – Uses servo mechanism to significantly reduce errors




How Cranes Work

Tower cranes arrive at the construction site on 10 to 12 tractor-trailer rigs. The crew uses a mobile crane to assemble the jib and the machinery section, and places these horizontal members on a 40-foot (12 m) mast that consists of two mast sections. The mobile crane adds the counterweights.


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tower crane

The mast rises from this firm foundation. The mast is a large, triangulated lattice structure, typically 10 feet (3.2 m) square. The triangulated structure gives the mast the strength to remain upright.

To rise to its maximum height, the crane grows itself one mast section at a time. The crew uses a top climber or climbing frame that fits between the slewing unit and the top of the mast.

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hydraulic self-erecting tower crane

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Here’s the process:

  1. The crew hangs a weight on the jib to balance the counterweight.
  2. The crew detaches the slewing unit from the top of the mast. Large hydraulic rams in the top climber push the slewing unit up 20 feet (6 m).
  3. The crane operator uses the crane to lift another 20-foot mast section into the gap opened by the climbing frame. Once bolted in place, the crane is 20 feet taller.
Once the building is finished and it is time for the crane to come down, the process is reversed, the crane disassembles its own mast and then smaller cranes disassemble the rest.


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The first known construction cranes were invented by the Ancient Greeks and were powered by men (or beasts of burden, donkeys.). Larger cranes were later developed, employing the use of human treadwheels, permitting the lifting of heavier weights.

So what are the different types of cranes used in construction?
  • Mobile Cranes
  • Telescopic Crane
  • Tower Crane
  • Truck Mounted Crane
  • Rough Terrain Crane
  • Loader Crane
  • Overhead Cran

Mobile Cranes

It is the most standard & versatile type of crane usually used in the construction industry today. The hydraulic mobile crane consists of a steel telescopic boom mounted on a mobile platform. It could be a wheeled, a cat truck, or even on a rail.

Telescopic Cranes

It offers a boom that consists of a number of tubes which are fitted one inside of the other in a proper structure. It has a special hydraulic mechanism which extends or retracts the tubes to increase or decrease the length of the telescopic boom. Now-a-days most of the cranes are in some form of a telescopic crane. Except for the iron constructed lattice boom crane which is bolted together to get the perfect height for the hoist.

Tower Crane

Tower crane is a modern form of balance crane. They are used mostly in the construction of tall buildings. They can left load up to 20 tons and work up to 256 feet height approximately.

Truck Mounted Crane 

Cranes mounted on rubber tire trucks which provide great mobility. Outriggers are used to stabilize the truck by extending it horizontally or vertically. The capacity of these cranes rarely exceeds 50 ton capacity.

Rough Terrain Crane

The vehicle which is used for mounting the crane has a rubber tires which are specially designed to enhance its mobility in places with inaccessible terrain. They are used in off road applications. A normal vehicle mounted crane can not be used in off road constructions.

Loader Crane

A loader crane is a hydraulically powered articulated arm fitted to a trailer, used load equipment onto a trailer.

Floating Crane:

Floating crane it is mostly used in offshore construction and they are used in the lifting of heavy loads. Floating crane cannot be rotated they are fixed. They have a large capacity of about 9000 tons.