Traditionally there are six different kinds of metals, namely gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead.
Light weight metals include: aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and beryllium alloys. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Aluminum is relatively easy to fabricate by forming, machining, or welding.
|Ferrous Metals||Non-Ferrous Metals|
- Carbon Steels.
- Alloy Steels.
- Stainless Steels.
- Tool Steels.
- Aluminum. Similar in appearance to stainless steel, aluminum is lighter and less strong than steel. …
- Brass. …
- Copper. …
- Stainless Steel. …
- Wrought Iron. …
- 5 Common Metal Finishes.
Ingredients of Steel
- Carbon – This ingredient is essential to steel’s creation; all steel will have some amount of carbon. It is the most important hardening element, but as it is added it can reduce the toughness of the material.
- Chromium – Combats corrosion. Chromium will also increase the strength of the material, but adding chromium in large amounts decreases toughness.
- Cobalt – Strengthens the the material
- Copper – Combats corrosion.
- Manganese – Hardens the material. If added in high quantities it can increase brittleness.
- Molybdenum – Maintains the steel’s strength at high temperatures.
- Nickel – Adds toughness.
- Nitrogen – This element is sometimes used as a replacement for carbon in steel.
- Phosphorus – Improves strength.
- Silicon – Increases strength. Also, removes oxygen from the metal while it is being formed.
- Sulfur – Increases machinability but decreases toughness.
- Tungsten – Increases wear resistance.
- Vanadium – Increases wear resistance and makes the material harder.
Types of Steel
There are literally thousands of types of steel. Among them, the most common are carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels, and stainless steels. Each of these types of steel has a designation system that gives them a specific number.
Plain carbon steels are steels that contain iron, carbon, and a small amount of manganese. In contrast, alloy steels have a specified composition and contain certain percentages of vanadium or molybdenum, and they also typically have a larger amount of manganese. Tool steel contains tungsten, molybdenum, and other alloying elements.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology notes that “steel has become one of the most reliable, most used and most important materials of the age.” As an advanced engineered material, steel is the material of choice by engineers and architects because of its strong performance characteristics, reliability, versatility in design, consistency as a product and “green” proﬁle.
The American Iron and Steel Institute’s mission is to influence public policy, educate and shape public opinion in support of a strong, sustainable U.S. and North American steel industry committed to manufacturing products that meet society’s needs.
Steel continues to provide a proven environmentally responsible solution for meeting green building requirements in sustainability standards.
- Steel is the most recycled material in the world, more than aluminum, copper, paper, glass and plastic combined. In North America alone, more than 60 million tons of steel are recycled or exported for recycling each year.
- Today, 97 percent of steel by-products can be re-used and the recycling rate for steel itself is 86 percent.
- Through recycling, the steel industry saves the energy needed to power 20 million homes for one year.
- Advanced high-strength steel is the only material that reduces greenhouse gas emissions in all phases of an automobile’s life: manufacturing, driving and end-of-life.
- Since 1990, the industry has reduced energy intensity by 31 percent and CO2 emissions by 36 percent per ton of steel shipped.
- The North American steel industry is committed to the highest safety and health standards. Since 2005, U.S. steel producers have achieved a reduction of 70 percent in both the total OSHA recorded injury and illness and lost workday case rates.