The Steel Curtain

Introducing The Steel Curtain

The Undisputed Champion of Roller Coasters

The Steel Curtain

Steel Curtain Birds Eye View

Kennywood Park and the Pittsburgh Steelers are proud to introduce The Steel Curtain! At a maximum height of 220 feet, the colossal steel structure of the coaster will serve as a landmark addition to the park and a high-energy entry point welcoming guests to Steelers Country.

During the two-minute adrenaline rush, riders will speed through 4,000 feet of track at 75 miles per hour while navigating 9 inversions – including the world’s tallest at 197 feet above the ground!

Designed by S&S Sansei Technologies, The Steel Curtain will set three new records: a Pennsylvania state record (tallest roller coaster), a North American record (most inversions), and a world record (tallest inversion).

Coaster Stats

The Steel Curtain Logo

Records Set: 3
Height: 220 feet – tallest roller coaster in PA
Speed: 76 mph
Inversions: 9 – most in North America
Tallest Inversion: 197 feet – tallest in the world
Lift Angle: 50 degrees
Length: 4,000 feet
Duration: 2 minutes
Passengers: 24





“𝗣𝗿𝗼𝗷𝗲𝗰𝘁𝘀 𝗮𝗿𝗲 𝗺𝗮𝗻𝗮𝗴𝗲𝗱 𝗳𝗿𝗼𝗺 𝗶𝗻𝗰𝗲𝗽𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 𝘁𝗼 𝗰𝗼𝗺𝗽𝗹𝗲𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻”

(𝟰𝟭𝟮) 𝟮𝟴𝟯-𝟰𝟱𝟬𝟬


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American Ladder Institute

The American Ladder Institute was founded in 1947 and has evolved to fit the needs of the membership and industry.

The mission of the American Ladder Institute is to promote the safe use of our products as well as advance the common business interests of our members through a commitment to:

  • Development and dissemination of appropriate standards.
  • Education of the public as to the proper selection, care and safe use of ladders
  • Representation of the interests of its members

The American Ladder Institute (ALI) is a not-for-profit association dedicated to promoting safe ladder use. ALI is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved developer of ladder safety Standards. Standards are technical specifications, developed and tested by subject experts, which prescribe rules governing the safety construction, design, testing, care and use of various types of ladders.

Ladders are built from one of three basic materials; wood, fiberglass and metal (aluminum).  

The environment of the work site is the first factor in choosing the material from which the ladder is constructed. If you are working near sources of electricity, a metal ladder should be rejected since aluminum is an electrical conductor. If there are no electrical power sources in the work area, the aluminum ladder is the lightest weight when compared to fiberglass or wood.

There are also several kinds of ladders manufactured for a variety of uses. Evaluate the work environment for the right ladder for the job. Each of the following considerations addresses safety issues in the work environment:

  • Will the ladder be resting on an uneven surface?
  • Is the work area crowded with people and/or materials?
  • What obstructions are in the path of the climb?

Safety standards require a label on the ladder to indicate the highest standing levelThe proper ladder length must be selected. It is unsafe to use a ladder that is too long or too short.

Step Ladders: standing on the top cap or the step below the top cap is not permitted due to the increased likelihood of loss of balance.

Straight Ladders: are too long, if ceiling height prohibits the ladder from being set-up at the proper angle.

Extension Ladders: the top three rungs are not to be used for climbing. If the ladder extends more than three (3) feet beyond the upper support point. In this case, the portion of the ladder that extends above the upper support point can act like a lever and cause the base of the ladder to move or slide out.

Duty Rating of the ladder: This is an indication of the maximum weight capacity the ladder can safely carry. This information can be found on the specifications label. Safety standards require a Duty Rating sticker to be placed on the side of every ladder. Do not assume that a longer ladder has a higher weight capacity. There is no relationship between ladder length and weight capacity.

To figure out the total amount of weight the ladder will be supporting, add:

  • Your Weight; plus
  • The Weight of Your Clothing and Protective Equipment; plus
  • The Weight of Tools and Supplies You Are Carrying; plus
  • The Weight of Tools and Supplies Stored on the Ladder

There are five categories of ladder Duty Ratings:

Type IAA (Extra Heavy Duty) 375 pounds
Type IA (Extra Heavy Duty) 300 pounds
Type I (Heavy Duty) 250 pounds
Type II (Medium Duty) 225 pounds
Type III (Light Duty) 200 pounds

Ladder Varieties

The work environment, including the physical size restrictions, is probably the most important factor in determining the variation of ladder to use for a given job. The versatility of the ladder, is a major consideration, especially for domestic use.

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Pittsburgh Stadiums

Forbes Field was the country’s first concrete and steel baseball stadium

Historic photo of Forbes Field in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Forbes Field was a baseball park in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1909 to June 28, 1970. It was the third home of the Pittsburgh Pirates Major League Baseball team, and the first home of the Pittsburgh Steelers, the city’s National Football League. (Demolished 1971)

Pitt Stadium

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Pitt Stadium was an outdoor athletic stadium in the eastern United States, located on the campus of the University of Pittsburgh in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Opened in 1925, it served primarily as the home of the university’s Pittsburgh Panthers football team through 1999. (Demolished December 1999)

Three Rivers Stadium

Screenshot (1970)

Three Rivers Stadium was a multi-purpose stadium located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1970 to 2000. It was home to the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball and the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League. (Demolished February 11, 2011)

Civic Arena / Mellon Arena Parking Lot

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Civic Arena was an arena located in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Civic Arena primarily served as the home to the Pittsburgh Penguins, the city’s National Hockey League franchise, from 1967 to 2010. (Demolished September 26, 2011 to March 31, 2012)

Exposition ParkExposition Park, former home of the Pittsburgh Pirates

Exposition Park was the name given to three historic stadiums, located in what is today Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The fields were used mainly for professional baseball and American football from c. 1879 to c. 1915.

Along the banks of the Allegheny River baseball has been played at multiple ballparks dating to the 1880s. In 1882 the Pittsburgh Alleghenys were established as members of American Association baseball league where they played at the first Exposition Park. A flood and fire destroyed this ballpark and a new Exposition Park was constructed upriver. The following season they moved to Recreation Park, a 17,000 seat ballpark. In 1890 the Pittsburgh Burghers were formed, joining the Players League. They built a new Exposition Park in an area today between Heinz Field and PNC Park. This ballpark featured a covered wooden grandstand with seating for 16,000 fans. 




Wrought Iron & Ornamental Iron

Wrought Iron & Ornamental Iron are two very different classifications of a very similar style of fence. The biggest difference between these two types of fences is the material they are made from. While both iron and steel are heat treated by fire to increase their strength, the formation processes they undergo are different.

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Wrought Iron fence

Wrought Iron fences are made from the raw element of iron, that heats the iron to red hot temperatures. and charcoal firing is used. Iron is a naturally occurring standalone substance that can be harvested from the earth. Refined, professional workmanship is more common in wrought iron fences and will bend under extreme heat and does not dent, dimple, or collapse. Most every wrought iron fence is custom made but Genuine wrought iron is solid and shaped by a blacksmith or master craftsmen and take time to produce and are usually custom created as needed, made to order.

Genuine” iron fences have not been commercially available since steel was popularized. However, you can still find the pieces needed to create a wrought iron fence, but rarely, if at all, will you find a true wrought iron fence manufacturer.

Pros & Cons of Wrought Iron

custom & unique design
premium quality material
very heavy
reliable, solid
long life span

custom made iron fences are difficult to find in mass production
long lead time manufacturing process

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Ornamental iron fence

Ornamental iron fences are actually made from steel and is formed by machinery and then welded into a final shape. Most ornamental iron fences are machine made. They can be manufactured in large quantities and bought/sold in bulk. This creates a more affordable product that is easier to work with, but still displays similar properties to that of genuine wrought iron. Because decorative fences made from ornamental iron are usually mass produced, they have a more uniform look than their handcrafted counterparts and is more easily dented, dimpled, or bent.

manufacture in large quantities
lightweight material
cost effective
cheaper to ship and transport
modified or customized after market
easy to repair, match, or extend.
manufacturer warranty up to 10-25 years

double check materials for quality assurance
standard steel fences bend under less pressure, more easily damaged
may need to be replaced before a wrought iron fence









Excavator Pins:

Excavator pins are usually made of a AISI 4130 or 4140 steel. The AISI 4000 series of steels are chromium molybdenum steels. Chromium improves corrosion resistance and its ability to be hardened while molybdenum increases strength and harden ability.

The steel used will most likely have been heat treated using induction hardening. This heat treatment processes produces a hardened surface (58 to 63 Rockwell C) for wear resistance with a ductile interior for toughness.

Excavator Bucket Sides and Cutting Edges:

The bucket sides and cutting edge are usually made of AR steel plate. The most popular grades are AR360 and AR400. AR 360 is a medium carbon, low alloy steel that is heat treated to provide excellent abrasion resistance and high impact strength. AR 400 has also been heat treated but it provides abrasion resistance and superior yield strength. Both of these steels have been carefully quenched and tempered to product qualities that are key to a good bucket.

Excavator Bucket Shell:

The bucket shell is often made of ASTM A572 Grade 50, a high strength, low alloy steel. This steel is alloyed with columbium and vanadium. Vanadium helps with maintaining the toughness of the steel.

Excavator Bucket Teeth:

There are two ways of manufacturing bucket teeth: casting and forging.

Cast bucket teeth may be made of a low alloy steel with nickel and molybdenum as the primary alloying elements. Molybdenum improves the hardenability and strength of the steel and can also help minimize some forms of pitting corrosion. Nickel increases strength, toughness, and also helps prevent corrosion.

Forged bucket teeth are also made from a heat-treated alloy steel, but the type of steel varies with manufacturer. The heat treatment improves wear properties and increases impact strength.

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Excavator equipment is powered by diesel. Diesel offers the ultimate in horsepower to allow maximum efficiency. Fueling excavator parts in this way is much more reliable than using other products, as diesel can withstand the rigorous of major works.


The operator of the excavator uses pedals and levers to steer the equipment, and to move backwards and forwards. Tracks, similar to tank tracks, are activated by the diesel powered engine, and hydraulic motors control the arm of the excavator.


The arm of equipment is incorporated into the lower frame chassis. It is composed of three hydraulic pistons that operate in tandem with steel piston arms.

The two main sections and bucket loader are connected by means of a hinge. The extension of the first piston widens the section at the same time as increases in girth, providing further reach for the operator. The third piston activates the bucket loader, enabling the collection of debris into the bucket. Excavator buckets function with specially designed excavator teeth.


The excavator attachments require fixed tracks in order to function. The tracks are operated by means of manipulating gears that are fused with the engine.

Use of the gears allows the hydraulic excavator to move backwards and forwards. Turning the machine involves replacing one track with another. More complex pieces of equipment involve manipulating more than one track at the same time.

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Excavator Parts:
  • Dipper, Arm, Stick, Crowd Cylinder
  • Bucket Cylinder
  • H-Link
  • Bucket
  • Side Link, Dog Bones
  • Dipper, Stick, Arm
  • Boom Cylinder
  • Boom
  • Car Body
  • Track Pad, Grouser Pad
  • Sprocket
  • Front Idler
  • Swing Reducer, Swing Drive & Motor
  • Track Adjuster, Tensioner
  • Bottom Roller
  • Track Chain, Rails
  • Travel Motor, Drive Motor, Propel Motor
  • Final Drive, Reduction Assembly
  • Top Carrier Roller
  • Swing Gear, Swing Bearing
  • Main Hydraulic Pump
  • Main Control Valve
  • Engine
  • Cab, ROPS (Roll Over Protective Structure)




Metal Roofing Installation


One of the biggest reasons metal roofing is commonly chosen in commercial applications is due to its superior weather resistance to wind and water, especially in areas where hurricanes or other tropical weather is a concern. Even when the structure isn’t in a tropical location, metal roofing gives business and building owners the peace of mind that their roof is destined to last and not need constant upkeep. Common uses:

  • Hospitals
  • Schools and universities
  • Churches
  • Government buildings
  • Military structures
  • Restaurants
  • Stores
  • Offices
  • Hotels
  • Transportation buildings

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Metal roofing begins as a metal coil or sheet, it has the ability to be formed and cut into many different shapes, sizes, and lengths. Also, variety, along with the durability, variety of colors, and eco-friendly qualities.


Like structural applications, barns and other agricultural buildings are common uses for metal roofing (especially lap seam or exposed fastener panels).

Structural metal roofing, is when metal panels are installed over open framing or on structures that span long lengths and are attached directly to the frame or purlins (additional support beams added to the roof frame).

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Metal Panel Seam Types

A seam on a metal roof is the side rib at which two metal panels come together and are connected. Seams are formed using a roll former and are then snapped together or mechanically seamed together.


Snap-lock – Metal roofing panels that have been carefully roll formed with specific panel profile edges that snap together and require no hand or mechanical seaming during installation.

Mechanical Seam – Mechanically seamed panels are also roll formed with specific edges that line up with each other on the roof. Once the two edges are put together, a hand or mechanical seamer is used to bend the edges and lock the panels together.

There are two kinds of mechanical seaming:

  • Single Lock / 90-degree seam – One folds of the seam
  • Double Lock / 180-degree seam– Two folds of the seam

Tee Panel – A type of standing seam where two panel edges come together and are connected at the top by a cap, mechanically seamed in place to lock the panels together.

Exposed Fastener Lap Seam – Exposed fastener lap seams are when the overlapping ends of the lap panels are fastened down to the deck from the top of the panel.

Metal Roofing Panel Rib Rollers

Rib rollers are the “patterns” or striations roll formed into a metal roofing panel between the seams. These can be used to assist with the installation of a metal roof.

Common rib rollers include:

Flat – No indents between the seams

Ribbed – Some shape or indentation between the seams

  • V-Ribs – “V” shaped panel indents
  • Bead – Longer, rectangular panel indents
  • Pencil – Circular panel indents

Striated – Small consistent indentation lines in the panel (can help reduce oil canning)

Corrugated – Larger, constant waving of the metal panel

Clip relief – A stiffening rib adjacent to the seam that allows the space for a clip

 UNDERLAYMENT – Underlayment is the layer of material that goes underneath the metal panels and provides protection from water and moisture, ice, high temperature, and vapors. Underlayment is generally installed mechanically or self-adhered with a glue backing on the roof deck. Common materials are felt, synthetic (polypropylene or polyethylene), and fully-adhered peel and stick.

CLIPS – Clips are used to attach the metal roof panels to the roof deck. Clips are put on the standing seam portion of the bottom panel, which is then attached to the roof deck by fasteners. After the clip is put on the bottom panel, the top panel is placed over the clip and the two panels are snapped together or mechanically seamed into place, which securely attaches it to the structure.

FASTENERS – Fasteners are the screws used to attach the metal roof to the roof deck during installation.

RIVETS – Rivets are similar to fasteners, but require a special rivet gun to install.

SEALANT – Sealants are used during installation to seal out water, dirt, wind, and other substances that can get into small spaces, making the roof as weather-tight as possible. Sealants, which are typically made up of silicone or polyurethane, come out of the tube as a flexible sealing compound that will cure after application. Most sealants are available in colors matching the roof panels.

BUTYL TAPE – Butyl tape is used in a similar fashion as sealant by sealing cracks and seams on metal roofing. It’s also commonly used for trimming purposes. It differs from sealants because it’s in the form of one or two-sided tape and seals by compression.

CLAMPS – Clamps are small metal parts that are tightened and attached to the top of the metal roof at its standing seam. These clamps have screws at the top used to attach extra roofing items such as a snow retention system, solar panels, satellite dishes, signs, AC units, etc.

PIPE BOOT – A pipe boot is the cone-like fitting that is installed around an exhaust pipe that exits through the roof. These products are typically made up of EPDM rubber (silicone is also available for high-temperature applications). The pipe boot, which can be purchased in a color matching the roof, is cut to fit the diameter of the exhaust pipe and is then sealed to the pipe and the metal surface.

Common Roofing Parts and Terms

This illustration highlights the important parts and components of a roofing structure.

FASCIA – The trim right below the roof that runs the perimeter of a structure to help keep water from running into the structure.

DRIP EDGE – A long piece of metal that is installed so water runs into the gutter and away from the fascia.

EAVE – A portion of the roof that extends past the supporting wall.

VALLEY – The internal angle at which two sloping roof planes meet.

HIP – The external or jutting angle at which two sloping roof panels meet.

RIDGE – The highest portion of a roof where at least two roof panels come to a point (commonly a horizontal line).

GABLE – The triangular section of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. The trim occupying this article is typically called “gable or rake trim”.

CRICKET – A peaked saddle construction installed between a chimney and the roof surface to prevent against the accumulation of snow and water.

FLASHING – Sheet metal that is used to seal different portions of the roof, i.e. chimneys, valleys, etc., and provide extra weather-tightness.

CURB – An accessory used to mount additions (AC units, fans, signs) and provide a level resting structure on a sloped roof.

ROOF DECKING – The base or foundation that the underlayment and roofing material are attached to. Common roof deck materials are metal, plywood, and oriented strand board (OSB).

PITCH – The slope of a roof, which is measured using the roof’s rise divided by its run.



Metal Roofing

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Metal roofs are made from corrugated galvanized steel, a steel sheet coated with zinc. Copper, aluminum, stainless steel, and tin are also used in commercial metal roof applications. Coatings can be applied to provide additional waterproofing, anti-rust, and UV protection.

These are usually painted or stone-coated steel. Stone coated steel roofing panels are made from zinc/aluminium-coated steel with an acrylic gel coating. It is usually roll-formed into standing seam profiles for roofing, individual shingles are also available.

Metal roofing is specifically engineered to last decades longer than any other roofing material. Depending upon the type of metal material used, most metal roofs last 60+ years without any signs of degradation or corrosion. Also, metal roof materials are often Class A fire-rated and noncombustible, its fire resistance is the highest grade possible.

Metal Roofing Panel Styles

Standing Seam – Standing seam metal roofing refers to metal panels interlocked together at the edges to form a seam, which stands vertically. A true standing seam system uses the concealed fastener method of installation, meaning the clips and fasteners are hidden beneath the surface. Standing seam roofing is considered the superior and the better-protected choice when compared to exposed fastener metal roofing.

Exposed Fastener Metal Roofing – Exposed fastener metal roofing, considered the less expensive and more economical choice, is installed with the heads of the fasteners visible on the top of the panels. When an exposed fastener roof is installed, the fastener goes directly through the metal and into the roof deck. Exposed fasteners have classically been used in agricultural or industrial applications.

Stamped Profiles – Shingles or more textured surfaces metal stamped profiles. There are many different stamped options to choose from, including:

  • Shake
  • Shingles
  • Tiles
5 Types of Metal Roofing
  • Copper – Extremely long-lasting, very soft with low melting temperature.
  • Aluminum – Long-lasting, resistant to salt water corrosion.
  • Zinc – Extremely long-lasting, resistant to corrosion and lowest melting point.
  • Steel – Three variations: galvanized, galvalume, and weathering steel (corten).

When comparing different materials, like wood, concrete, metal, plastic, or glass, metal easily stands out as the strongest and most durable. If properly installed, metal roofing is designed to withstand:

  • Strong winds
  • Debris (leaves, sticks, etc.)
  • Rain
  • Snow
  • Hail
  • Mold
  • Mildew
  • Rodents and other animals


The maintenance on a metal roof is generally minimal, especially if the roof was correctly installed. A concealed fastener roof will generally need little maintenance than an exposed fastener metal roof.


Metal roofing is the more eco-friendly, recyclable option in the roofing industry. Always make sure to specify that you would like recycled materials used before installation.

There are a number of reasons that metal roofing is environmentally friendly. First, most metal roofing is highly recyclable, meaning that any tear-off metal, old panels, or even manufactured excess scraps can be recycled and used in future products. These metal materials can either come as pre-consumer or post-consumer recycled content:

  • Pre-consumer recycled materials – Scrap content during the manufacturing stage that has been recycled for future use.
  • Post-consumer recycled materials – Excess materials that have already been in the possession of a consumer at one point in time and have been recycled for reuse.

Second, there are even some metal roofing materials, including aluminum, that are made of already-recycled metal. Nearly 95% of all aluminum roofing is made up of recycled materials.

Third, many metals, like zinc and copper, are found in the environment or in the Earth’s crust, which means they can be naturally replenished and sustained over time. Make sure to specify ahead of construction and installation that recycled content is important.




Types of Foundations

Following are different types of foundations used in construction:

  1. Shallow foundation
    • Individual footing or isolated footing
    • Combined footing
    • Strip foundation
    • Raft or mat foundation
  2. Deep Foundation
    • Pile foundation
    • Drilled Shafts or caissons
  • Foundations should not be used where the groundwater table is above the bearing surface of the soil. Use of foundation in such conditions may lead to scour and liquefaction.

Types of Shallow Foundations


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Installing Metal Studs

Steel framing is used in most office and commercial construction, and it has several advantages over wood. Steel studs are perfectly straight, and they don’t shrink, split, rot, or mold. They are also easy to store.

Working with steel studs requires a few special tools:

  • Metal cut-off saw
  • Fasteners
  • A hammer drill
  • Screw gun
  • Chalk box
  • Level
  • Laser level or plumb bob                                             
  • Clamps

screenshot (1897)

1 stud per every 12 inches (300 mm) of linear wall space. Steel plates for the bottom and top of the wall by measuring the linear feet of the wall and doubling it. Add an additional stud for each side of a window or door.

Plumb the top track the upper and lower track are plumb, you can use either a laser level, a plumb bob, or two water levels:

  • To use a laser level, simply place it in the bottom middle of the track and turn it on to shine a vertical laser up to your wall. This point will be your plumb point on the upper wall.
  • Using a plumb bob is similar to using a laser level. Attach the string to the top of the wall and let the bob come to a rest at the plumb line on the bottom of the floor.

Once plumb is established, attach the track to the upper ceiling drill and screw gun to the attach the track.

  • If your track runs perpendicular to the ceiling joists, fasten the track to the joists with self-tapping drywall screws.
  • If your track runs parallel to the ceiling joists, fasten the track to the joists with drywall anchors or secure it with grabber screws and glue.

Trim to correct length, cut both side flanges of a steel stud straight-cut aviation snips for this. Bend one flange up, clear of the snips’ jaws, and cut across the stud’s web.

  • Keep all the keyhole knockouts aligned by cutting all studs to length from the same end. Protect your hands with heavy-duty gloves.
  • To cut multiple pieces at once, use a miter saw with a metal cutting blade.
  • Cut the studs with aviation snips easier by first scoring the studs with a utility knife on both sides and then bending the stud back and forth until it breaks apart.

Join studs to tracks by clamping the two members tightly with C-clamp locking pliers at medium speed drive a 1/2 inch (1.2 cm) avoid stripping the screw hole drive the joint.pan-head screw in the middle where they meet.

Fabricate metal headers by cutting the track 2 inches (5 cm) longer than the rough opening width. Cut each flange of the track (on both ends) 1 inch (2.5 cm) lengthwise. Bend the web down 90 degrees using sheet metal locking pliers.

Secure electrical cable along the center line of each stud with plastic ties screwed to the studs. Pop a plastic bushing into each knockout in order to keep the cable from rubbing against the sharp edges.

Add wood blocking as needed for doors, windows and cabinets. If the steel stud wall seems flimsy, keep in mind that it gains full rigidity once drywall or sheathing is applied.

Hang drywall or sheathing using 1-1/4 inch (3.1 cm), self-tapping drywall screws. They should be spaced every 8 inches (20.3 cm) along edges (where two sheets meet on a stud) and 12 inches (30.5 cm) on centers located elsewhere.

  • Use screws with a fine thread instead of a coarse one.
  • Check the local codes. They may require screws placed closer together, better off having too many than having to add more after an inspector comes.

Finished the new metal studs won’t rot, sag, or be susceptible to fire.

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