ASM International

ASM International, formerly known as the American Society for Metals, is a professional organization for materials scientists and engineers.

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Founder: William Park Woodside


Location :
ASM Headquarters and Geodesic Dome, Materials Park campus, Russell Township, Geauga County, Ohio.

ASM provides several information resources, including the ASM Handbooks, a series of reference books that provide data on various types of metals. These handbooks are recognized as a standard reference in the field of materials science.

ASM has been in existence, under various names, since 1913. In 1933 it became the American Society for Metals (ASM). Gradually the society expanded its geographic scope beyond the U.S. and its technical scope beyond metals to include other materials. It became known as ASM International in 1986.  As of 2015, ASM claims 29,000 members worldwide.




Today’s Steel Mills in Pittsburgh PA

Homestead Steel Works was a large steel works located on the Monongahela River at Homestead, Pennsylvania in the United States. The company developed in the nineteenth century as an extensive plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a railway 425 miles (684 km) long, and a line of lake steamships.

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United States Steel’s Homestead Works outside Pittsburgh in 1973. In 1980, one out of 10 area workers was in the steel industry.

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Chimneys, now ornamental, mark the remains of the Homestead Works steel mill.


Mon Valley Works is an integrated steelmaking operation that includes four separate facilities: Clairton Plant, Edgar Thomson Plant, Irvin Plant and Fairless Plant.

United States Steel Corporation
Mon Valley Works
Fairless Plant

The Fairless Plant, a finishing facility located near Philadelphia, Pa., cold-rolled products are finished into galvanized sheet. Sheet products from the Mon Valley Works serve customers in the appliance, automotive, metal building and home construction industries. Mon Valley Works has an annual raw steel production capability of 2.9 million net tons.


Edgar Thomson Steel Works

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The mill occupies the historic site of Braddock’s Field, on the banks of the Monongahela River east of Pittsburgh PA.

Two blast furnaces (Furnaces No. 1 and No. 3) continue in operation at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works, which remains part of U.S. Steel. In 2005, the mill produced 2.8 million tons of steel, equal to 28% of U.S. Steel’s domestic production. The mill employs about 900 persons, some of whom belong to the second or third generations of their families to work in the mill.

Among improvements to its physical plant is a $250 million continuous caster, which converts liquid steel directly into slabs, installed in 1992.

In April 1995, the mill was designated a historic landmark by ASM International (American Society for Metals), a society that honors works of structural engineering. Other structures honored by the society are the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower.

Big Business Leaders

The history of steel is long and triumphant, weathering millennia to become one of the most versatile and widely-used metals in the modern world.

The history of steel production and implementation can be traced back almost 4,000 years, the earliest archaeological excavation being dated around 1800 BC.


The replacement of charcoal with coke in the steel-making process revolutionized the industry, and tied steel making to coal-mining areas. In the 1800’s, making a ton of steel required a greater weight of coal than iron ore. Therefore, it was more economical to locate closer to the coal mines. Pittsburgh, surrounded by large coal deposits and at the junction of three navigable rivers, was an ideal location for steel making.

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Henry Bessemer

The mass-production of cheap steel only became possible after the introduction of the Bessemer process, named after its brilliant inventor, the British metallurgist Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-1898).

The modern steel industry began developing during the mid 19th century with the invention of the Bessemer process which made it possible to mass produce steel in an inexpensive method. Steel plays a major role in the industrialization and infrastructure of a country and is therefore considered an indicator of economic progress and development.

Andrew William Mellon
Andrew William Mellon
Andrew Mellon was an American industrialist and philanthropist who also served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1921 to 1932. He is credited to have provided financial backing to industries in different fields such as oil, shipbuilding, construction, aluminum and steel, etc. He expanded the business by investing in several growth oriented industries and secured large interests in companies in the oil, automotive, steel, coal, hydroelectric, and insurance sector.

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J. Edgar Thomson
J. Edgar Thomson, (born Feb. 10, 1808, Springfield Township, Pa. U.S. died May 27, 1874, Philadelphia), American civil engineer and president of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company who consolidated a network of railroad lines from Philadelphia to various cities in the Midwest and the South, extending as far as Chicago and Norfolk, Va.


In 1846, the Pennsylvania Railroad was chartered to build a railroad system that would allow Pennsylvania to compete with New York and other eastern states in operating trade lines to the west. Hired as chief engineer of the railroad in 1847, he was president by 1852 and held that position until his death.Thomson completed a through line that crossed the Alleghenies and the Appalachians without using inclined grades. The line’s Philadelphia-to-Pittsburgh service began in February 1854.

In the next 20 years, Thomson extended the line west, creating the Pennsylvania Company in 1870–71 to lease and develop systems from Pittsburgh to Chicago. He also pushed east and south, leasing the lines of the United Companies of New Jersey in 1871 and acquiring an interest in the Southern Railway Security Company in 1873. To establish Philadelphia as a centre for transatlantic trade, he helped found the American Steamship Company in 1870.

In addition to vastly expanding the Pennsylvania Railroad’s lines, Thomson introduced a number of improvements to the railway industry, including a system for handling passenger baggage and the use of steel rather than iron rails.






Pittsburgh is home to the George Westinghouse Bridge, Westinghouse Park and a memorial to George Westinghouse in Schenley Park.

Westinghouse at age twenty-three, an american entrepreneur and engineer. Living in Pittsburgh PA, demonstrated his invention in April 1869, on a local Pittsburgh-to-Steubenville, Ohio, passenger train.

       Westinghouse Memorial Park  Schenley PA
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George Westinghouse  (October 6, 1846 – March 12, 1914)  was an inventor and engineer who held more than 300 patents over the course of his life. He both created new technologies and refined existing ones. He helped make Pittsburgh one of America’s industrial centers. He even beat out Thomas Edison in the race to build the nation’s electrical infrastructure.

Today, many luxury cars and off-road vehicles use compressed air suspensions that operate on similar principles to Westinghouse’s initial idea. Low riders and cars that have adjustable suspensions use the technology.

The compressed air shock absorber came from his early work on railroad safety.

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                 Transformer                                 Railway air brake

Westinghouse invented train airbrakes, and modern trains still use his basic design. Before the introduction of airbrakes, locomotive brakes had to be applied manually.

Airbrakes, could be operated by the engineer. Compressed air in a tank is released through pipes on the underside of the train cars, and the compressed air applies the brake shoes to the train’s wheels.


The most innovative part of Westinghouse’s design was that it was fail-safe: If the system felt a leak in the pipes, the brakes deployed automatically, stopping the train before its speed became a problem. Westinghouse’s airbrakes are still used on trains today. 

Westinghouse invented a reduction valve that allowed natural gas to come out of its distribution pipes in low-pressure bursts. As a result, natural gas became safe enough for home use, and Pittsburgh soon had the nation’s first wide-spread natural gas delivery system.

Related imageWestinghouse organized the Westinghouse Air Brake Company in July 1869.

The Westinghouse Electric Company in 1884.


Founded The Westinghouse Electric Company in 1886,

1904, Westinghouse owned nine manufacturing companies in the U.S.The first single-phase railway locomotive was demonstrated in the East Pittsburgh railway yards in 1905. He founded his last major project in 1910, the invention of a compressed air spring for taking the shock out of automobile riding.Westinghouse supplied the world’s first commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) in 1957 in Shippingport, Pennsylvania.


1895 – Westinghouse builds the power system for the Adams Power Station at Niagara Falls. 

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Working with engineer William Stanley and scientist Nikola Tesla, Westinghouse’s company developed a transformer that allowed the current to be reduced in power for use in cities, or increased in power for distribution across long distances. Westinghouse lit the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago with AC power, their system began to dominate power distribution. Electricians use the same principles to deliver power today.

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company created products ranging from the electric locomotive to the electric kitchen stove. Westinghouse also owned the first commercial radio station and the first commercial radio broadcast. By the 1920’s, the company was experimenting with television technology while also building massive motors to power industrial sites and maritime motors for ships.

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The George Westinghouse Bridge: in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, carries U.S. Route 30, the Lincoln Highway, over the Turtle Creek Valley near to where it joins the Monongahela River Valley east of Pittsburgh. The bridge has a total length of 1,598 feet.





Iron City Pittsburgh

Iron City, the Pittsburgh-based brewery, became the first producer of beer to use new pull-tab technology.

In 1962, they introduced and created by an engineer who, legend has it, found himself at a picnic with beer but no church key, the pull tab was a flat piece of metal riveted to the top of the can that you pulled off to reveal the graduated flask-shaped hole from which you drank. Schlitz soon followed suit, incorporating the pull tab into cans before the year was out. By June, 1963, 40 breweries were using pull-tabs.



Iron City printed no instructions on top of their can, creating confusion for some drinkers. When pulled, the tab sometimes left sharp edges that could cut lips and tongues. Sometimes the tab would break off before removing the entire metal strip, There was also the new problem of litter; thin pieces of metal appeared in the wake of any drinking session. It was clear that the technology was far from perfect.

This can emerged in the early ’70s before being snuffed out by the stay tab. Cans with press buttons came with two pre-cut buttons, mimicking the holes one would make with a church key. A plastic covering protected the holes, which the drinker was to depress with two fingers.

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In 1959, Ermal Fraze devised a can-opening method that would come to dominate the canned beverage market. His invention was the “pull-tab“. This eliminated the need for a separate opener tool by attaching an aluminum pull-ring lever with a rivet to a pre-scored wedge-shaped tab section of the can top.

Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie: led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century.

Carnegie as he appears in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.


Carnegie started work as a telegrapher and by the 1860’s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars, bridges and oil derricks. He accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman raising money for American enterprise in Europe. He built Pittsburgh’s Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J.P. Morgan in 1901 for $480 million. It became the U.S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.


Starting in 1853, Thomas A. Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company employed Carnegie as a secretary/telegraph operator . In 1859, Carnegie became superintendent of the Western Division. Carnegie hire his brother, Tom, to be his personal secretary and telegraph operator. Carnegie also hired his cousin, Maria Hogan, who became the first female telegraph operator in the country. His employment by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company would be vital to his later success. The railroads were the first big businesses in America, and the Pennsylvania was one of the largest of them all.

After the war, Carnegie left the railroads to devote all his energies to the ironworks trade. Carnegie worked to develop several iron works, eventually forming the Keystone Bridge Works and the Union Ironworks, in Pittsburgh. Although he had left the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, he remained closely connected to its management, namely Thomas A. Scott and J. Edgar Thomson. He used his connection to the two men to acquire contracts for his Keystone Bridge Company and the rails produced by his ironworks. .When he built his first steel plant, he made a point of naming it after Thomson.

Carnegie made his fortune in the steel industry, controlling the most extensive integrated iron and steel operations ever owned by an individual in the United States. One of his two great innovations was in the cheap and efficient mass production of steel by adopting and adapting the Bessemer process for steel making. Sir Henry Bessemer had invented the furnace which allowed the high carbon content of pig iron to be burnt away in a controlled and rapid way.


1885–1900: Steel empire

Bessemer converter: schematic diagram
Henry Bessemer
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The mass-production of cheap steel only became possible after the introduction of the Bessemer process, named after its brilliant inventor, the British metallurgist Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-1898).


The second was in his vertical integration of all suppliers of raw materials. In the late 1880’s, Carnegie Steel was the largest manufacturer of pig iron, steel rails, and coke in the world, with a capacity to produce approximately 2,000 tons of pig metal per day.

In 1883, Carnegie bought the rival Homestead Steel Works, which included an extensive plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a 425-mile (685 km) long railway, and a line of lake steamships. Carnegie combined his assets and those of his associates in 1892 with the launching of the Carnegie Steel Company.

By 1889, the U.S. output of steel exceeded that of the UK, and Carnegie owned a large part of it. Carnegie’s empire grew to include the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works in Braddock, (named for John Edgar Thomson, Carnegie’s former boss and president of the Pennsylvania Railroad), Pittsburgh Bessemer Steel Works, the Lucy Furnaces, the Union Iron Mills, the Union Mill (Wilson, Walker & County), the Keystone Bridge Works, the Hartman Steel Works, the Frick Coke Company, and the Scotia ore mines. Carnegie, through Keystone, supplied the steel for and owned shares in the landmark Eads Bridge project across the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri (completed 1874). This project was an important proof-of-concept for steel technology, which marked the opening of a new steel market.

1901: U.S. Steel

Carnegie caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair, 1903                                      

1901–1919: Philanthropist

In 1901,Carnegie was 66 years of age and considering retirement. John Pierpont Morgan, a banker, envisioned an integrated steel industry that would cut costs, lower prices to consumers, produce in greater quantities and raise wages to workers. To this end, he needed to buy out Carnegie and several other major producers and integrate them into one company. He concluded negotiations on March 2, 1901, and formed the United States Steel Corporation. It was the first corporation in the world with a market capitalization over $1 billion.

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Carnegie Mellon University                Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh


Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace, education and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall and the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University and the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others.

Carnegie commemorated as an industrialist, philanthropist, and founder of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1960.





Traditionally there are six different kinds of metals, namely gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and lead. 

Light weight metals include: aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and beryllium alloys. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are lightweight, non-ferrous metals with good corrosion resistance, ductility, and strength. Aluminum is relatively easy to fabricate by forming, machining, or welding.

Ferrous Metals Non-Ferrous Metals
Alloy Steel Aluminum
Carbon Steel Beryllium
HSLA Steel Copper
Iron-based superalloys Magnesium
Ferrous metals include: mild steel, carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron, and wrought iron. These metals are primarily used for their tensile strength and durability, especially mild steel which helps hold up the tallest skyscrapers and the longest bridges in the world.
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Non-Ferrous Metals: do not contain Iron, are not magnetic and are usually more resistant to corrosion than ferrous metals. Some examples of Non-Ferrous Metals we deal with are: Aluminium & Aluminium Alloys. Copper.
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According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), steel can be broadly categorized into four groups based on their chemical compositions:
  • Carbon Steels.
  • Alloy Steels.
  • Stainless Steels.
  • Tool Steels.
Five common metal finishes that can influence the way metals look:
  • Aluminum. Similar in appearance to stainless steel, aluminum is lighter and less strong than steel. …
  • Brass. …
  • Copper. …
  • Stainless Steel. …
  • Wrought Iron. …
  • 5 Common Metal Finishes.
An alloy: is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. An alloy may be a solid solution of metal elements (a single phase) or a mixture of metallic phases (two or more solutions).

Ingredients of Steel

  • Carbon – This ingredient is essential to steel’s creation; all steel will have some amount of carbon. It is the most important hardening element, but as it is added it can reduce the toughness of the material.
  • Chromium – Combats corrosion. Chromium will also increase the strength of the material, but adding chromium in large amounts decreases toughness.
  • Cobalt – Strengthens the the material
  • Copper – Combats corrosion.
  • Manganese – Hardens the material. If added in high quantities it can increase brittleness.
  • Molybdenum – Maintains the steel’s strength at high temperatures.
  • Nickel – Adds toughness.
  • Nitrogen – This element is sometimes used as a replacement for carbon in steel.
  • Phosphorus – Improves strength.
  • Silicon – Increases strength. Also, removes oxygen from the metal while it is being formed.
  • Sulfur – Increases machinability but decreases toughness.
  • Tungsten – Increases wear resistance.
  • Vanadium – Increases wear resistance and makes the material harder.

Types of Steel

There are literally thousands of types of steel. Among them, the most common are carbon steels, alloy steels, tool steels, and stainless steels. Each of these types of steel has a designation system that gives them a specific number.

Plain carbon steels are steels that contain iron, carbon, and a small amount of manganese. In contrast, alloy steels have a specified composition and contain certain percentages of vanadium or molybdenum, and they also typically have a larger amount of manganese. Tool steel contains tungsten, molybdenum, and other alloying elements.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology notes that “steel has become one of the most reliable, most used and most important materials of the age.” As an advanced engineered material, steel is the material of choice by engineers and architects because of its strong performance characteristics, reliability, versatility in design, consistency as a product and “green” profile.

The American Iron and Steel Institute’s mission is to influence public policy, educate and shape public opinion in support of a strong, sustainable U.S. and North American steel industry committed to manufacturing products that meet society’s needs.

Steel continues to provide a proven environmentally responsible solution for meeting green building requirements in sustainability standards.

  • Steel is the most recycled material in the world, more than aluminum, copper, paper, glass and plastic combined. In North America alone, more than 60 million tons of steel are recycled or exported for recycling each year.
  • Today, 97 percent of steel by-products can be re-used and the recycling rate for steel itself is 86 percent.
  • Through recycling, the steel industry saves the energy needed to power 20 million homes for one year.
  • Advanced high-strength steel is the only material that reduces greenhouse gas emissions in all phases of an automobile’s life: manufacturing, driving and end-of-life.
  • Since 1990, the industry has reduced energy intensity by 31 percent and CO2 emissions by 36 percent per ton of steel shipped.
  • The North American steel industry is committed to the highest safety and health standards. Since 2005, U.S. steel producers have achieved a reduction of 70 percent in both the total OSHA recorded injury and illness and lost workday case rates.












Steel Connections | Overview

  • ƒ Connections are the glue that holds a steel structure together.
  • ƒ Historically, most major structural failures have been due to some form of connection failure.
  • ƒ Steel connections have a direct influence on the cost of the framing system.
  • ƒ While a connection may be efficient in the use of material, it may still be very expensive to erect.
  • ƒ Repetitive connection design may save costs
  • ƒ Most connections have the connecting material (plates,angles, …) attached to one member in the fabrication shop and to the other members in the field.
  • ƒ It is a common practice to weld shop attachments and to bolt field attachments.
  • ƒ If the supporting girder and a supported beam have the same depth, the supported beam must be double coped.
  • ƒ End-plate connections are always shop welded.

Steel Connections | Bolted Connections

  • ƒ Bolting is the preferred method of connecting members on the site. Staggered bolt layout allows easier access for tightening with a pneumatic wrench when a connection is all bolted .
  • ƒ High strength bolts may be snug-tightened or slip-critical.
  • ƒ Snug-tightened connections are referred to as bearing connections
  • ƒ Bolts in a slip-critical connection act like clamps holding the plies of the material together.
  • ƒ Bearing type connections may have threads included ( TypeN ) or excluded (TypeX ) from the shear plane(s).
  • ƒ Including the threads in the shear plan reduces the strength of the connection by approximately 25%.
  • ƒ Loading along the length of the bolt puts the bolt in axial tension.
  • ƒ If tension failure occurs, it usually takes place at the threaded section.
  • ƒ Three types of high strength bolts: A325, A490 (Hexagonal Head Bolts), and F1852 (Button Head Bolt)
  • ƒ A325 may be galvanized A490 bolts must not be galvanized F1852 bolts are mechanically galvanized
  • ƒ High strength bolts are most commonly available in 5/8” – 1 ½” diameters
  • ƒ Bolting requires punching or drilling of holes
  • ƒ Holes may be standard size holes, oversize holes, short slotted holes, long slotted holes.

Steel Connections | Welded Connections

  • ƒ Due to high costs of labor, extensive field -welding is the most expensive component in a steel frame.
  • ƒ Welding should be performed on bare metal.
  • ƒ Shop welding is preferred over field welding.
  • ƒ The weld material should have a higher strength than the pieces being connected.
  •  ƒ Single-pass welds are more economical than multi-pass welds.
  • ƒ The most economical size weld that may be horizontally deposited in one pass has 5/16”.
  • ƒ Fillet welds and groove welds make up the majority of all structural welds.
  • ƒ The strength of a fillet weld is directly proportional to the weld’s throat dimension.
  • ƒ The capacity of a weld depends on the weld’s throat dimension and its length.

Steel Connections | Shear Connections

  • ƒ Shear connections are the most prevalent type of connections in a steel frame building.
  • ƒ Shear connections are called simple connections since they are assumed not to transfer bending moment, thus allowing end rotation of the member.
  • ƒ Shear connections may be made to the web of the supported member while the flanges remain unconnected.
  • ƒ Seat or hanger connections are the only type of shear connections that connect to the flange of the supported beam.
  • ƒ Angles for shear connections may be attached to supporting members by bolting or welding.
  • ƒ Although single plate connections, are the most economical, they must sometimes be evaluated for eccentricity.
  • ƒ Single angle connections allow end-rotation for flexible connections.
  • ƒ Single angle connections tend to have lower load capacities than double-angle connections.
  • ƒ Moment connections are also called rigid connections.
  • ƒ Moment connections carry a portion or the full moment capacity of the supported member thus preventing any end-rotation of the member.
  • ƒ Moment connections are typically designed to also carry the shear component of the load.
  • ƒ Moment connections provide continuity between the supported and supporting members.
  • ƒ Relative rotation between the supporting and supported members is negligible.
  • ƒ The flanges of the supported member are attached to either a connection element or directly to the supporting member.

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Shop-Bolted Double Angle | Field-Bolted Beam to Girder or Column

  • ƒ Double angles are shop-bolted to the web of the beam.
  • ƒ If the beam and girder have the same depth, then both flanges of the beam are coped to meet flush with the top flange of the girder.
  • ƒ The double angles are then field-bolted to the web of the girder.
  • ƒ The holes on the beam and the girder may be offset with respect to each other for ease of fastening.
  • ƒ Some rotation is possible in the gap between the beam flanges and the column web. This happens by the yielding of the connection material (the outstanding angle leg)
  • ƒ This is a shear connection since the double angles are fastened to the web, and transfer the load in shear.
  • ƒ The bolts on the beam web are in double shear. Those on the girder web are in single shear.
  • ƒ Double angles are shop-welded to the web of the beam.
  • ƒ If the beam and girder have different depth, the top flange of the beam is coped to meet flush with the top flange of the girder.
  • ƒ The double angles are then field-bolted to the web of the girder.
  • ƒ Some rotation is possible in the gap between the beam flanges and the column web. This happens by the yielding of the connection material (the outstanding angle leg).
  • ƒ This is a shear connection since the double angles are fastened to the web, and transfer the load in shear.
  • ƒ The bolts on the girder web are in single shear.
  • ƒ Double angles are shop-welded to the web of the beam.
  • ƒ If the beam flanges are too wide to fit in between the column flanges, the beam flanges will be coped.
  • ƒ Some rotation is possible in the gap between the beam flanges and the column web. This happens by the yielding of the connection material (the outstanding angle leg)
  • ƒ This is a shear connection since the double angles are fastened to the webs of the beam and column.
  • ƒ The vertical segment of the weld transfers the load from the beam web to the column web.
  • ƒ Welding all around the outstanding leg will inhibit the flexibility of the connection.
  • ƒ The weld at the top is limited to a weld-return.
  • ƒ The weld at the bottom is optional.

Shop-Welded Double Angle | Field-Welded Beam to Column Web

  • ƒ End plate is shop-welded to the web of the beam.
  • ƒ Holes in the end plate are punched in the shop.
  • ƒ Some rotation is possible in the gap between the beam flanges and the column web. This happens by the yielding of the connection material (the outstanding angle leg) The end plate is then field-bolted to the web of the girder.
  • ƒ This is a shear connection as the end plate is fastened to the web of the girder (beam flanges are not secured against rotation)
  • ƒ The bolts attaching the end plate to the girder web are in single shear

Unstiffened Seat | Shop-Welded and Field-Bolted

  • ƒ The angles are pre-drilled or punched in the shop before they are welded to the girder or column.
  • ƒ The bottom angle is called the seat.
  • ƒ The seat is where the girder transfers its load to the column in bearing.
  • ƒ The top angle provides stability to the girder.
  • ƒ The seat angle is larger and thicker since it transfers the load from the girder to the column.
  • ƒ Unlike others, this shear connection is not made to the web.

Shop-Welded Single Plate | Field-Bolted Plate to Beam or Column

  • ƒ The single plate is pre-drilled or punched and then shop-welded to the supporting column or girder web.
  • ƒ The beam may be swung into place instead of lowered into place.
  • ƒ The top flange of the beam is coped to match the girder elevation.
  • ƒ This is a shear connection since the single plate is fastened to the web of the beam.
  • ƒ The bolts shown are in single shear.
  • ƒ This connection can transfer a small amount of moment to the supporting member

Shop-Welded Flange Plates | Field-Bolted Girder to Column

  • ƒ The top and bottom flange plates are pre- drilled and then shop-welded to the column.
  • ƒ The top and bottom flange plates are field-bolted to the girder flanges.
  • ƒ The flange plates are cut to fill the space between the column flanges.
  • ƒ The single plate on the girder web transfers shear to the column.
  • ƒ The flange plates prevent rotation and thus the transfer of moment forces to the column
  • ƒ Allowance for shims must be made. Mill tolerance on beam depth needs to be accommodated.

Shop-Welded Flange Plates | Field-Bolted Girder to Column

  • ƒ The top and bottom flanges are pre-drilled and then shop-welded to the column.
  • ƒ The single plate is shop-bolted to the web of the girder.

Shop-Welded Flange Plates | Field-Bolted Girder to Column

  • ƒ The top and bottom flange plates are field-welded to the girder flanges.
  • ƒ The single plate is field-welded to the column web.
  • ƒ The flange plates are cut to fill the space between the column flanges.
  • 4.ƒ The corners of the flange plates are clipped to eliminate the development of stress concentrations at the re-entrant (back) corners.
  • ƒ These corners are left open and are not welded.
  • ƒ The single plate on the girder web transfers shear to the column
  • ƒ The flange plates prevent rotation and thus the transfer of moment
  • forces to the column, which makes this a moment connection
  • ƒ Allowance for shims must be made. Mill tolerance on beam depth needs to be accommodated.

Shop-Welded End Plate | Field-Bolted Girder to Column

  • ƒ The end plate is pre-drilled and shop-welded to the end of the girder.
  • ƒ The corresponding holes in the column flange are pre-drilled.
  • ƒ The two transverse stiffener plates are shop welded to secure the column flanges against the load transferred from the girder flanges.
  • ƒ Extended end-plate connections require tight fabrication and erection tolerances.
  • ƒ Extended end plate prevents rotation and thus transfers moment forces to the column which makes this a moment connection.

Field-Bolted Moment Splice | Girder to Girder or Column Connection

  • ƒ All holes in this connection are pre-drilled in the shop.
  • ƒ The web and flanges of each girder are pre-drilled.
  • ƒ (2) Shear plates are field-bolted in each side of the webs.
  • ƒ The plates that attach the (2) webs to each other are responsible for transferring shear.
  • ƒ Pre-drilled flange plates are field-bolted to the top and bottom flanges.
  • ƒ The flange plates are responsible for transferring bending moments across the connection.
  • ƒ The bolts fastening the web plates are in double shear.
  • ƒ The flange plates prohibit any rotation and so this is a moment connection.

Shop-Welded or Shop Bolted Splice | Connecting Two Different Columns

  • ƒ The plates are pre-punched and then shop-welded to the lower (larger) column.
  • ƒ The flange splice plates are field-bolted together.
  • ƒ If the two columns have the same depth, but different flange thickness, then a filler plate or shim is used to make up the difference in thickness.

Field – Welded Column Splice

  • ƒ A temporary plate or erection aid is either welded or bolted to the web and / or flange of the lower (larger) column in the shop.
  • ƒ Flange plates may also be required for stability of the column during erection.
  • ƒ This plate helps align the upper and lower columns.
  • ƒ The upper and lower columns may be of different sizes.
  • ƒ The flanges and webs of the two columns are field- welded to each other.
  • ƒ This type of weld is called a groove weld.

Example of 3D frame model cropped - Graitec UK Ltd.PNG

Steel Connections | Bolted Connections

Shop-Welded Flange Plates | Field-Bolted Girder to Column

Connections are structural elements used for joining different members of a structural steel frame work.  Steel Structure is an assemblage of different member such as “BEAMS,COLUMNS” which are connected to one other, usually at member ends fasteners, so that it shows a single composite unit.

The following parameters define subsequent connection types:

  • frame knee, beam-beam, column-beam connection
    • bar section parameters
    • base parameters
    • stiffener parameters
    • anchorage parameters
    • concrete, weld and wedge parameters
  • column-base connection
    • bar section parameters
    • reinforcement parameters
    • screw parameters
    • stiffener and plate parameters
    • depth of concrete base
  • angle connection
    • bar section parameters
    • angle parameters
    • bolt parameters
    • cut dimensions, distances, etc.
  • pipe connection
    • connection type (unilateral, bilateral)
    • parameters of adjoining bars (crosses)
    • bracket parameters
    • weld parameters
  •  gusset connection
    • connection type (welded, bolted) and its parameters
    • bar parameters etc.

Structural Connection

prefabricated, reinforced  concrete construction, the two types of connections used for joining beams, columns, slabs, and panels are the reinforced-concrete type and the metal type. In the reinforced-concrete type, provision is made for the transfer of forces by welding or by an overlap of the reinforcing rods with subsequent sealing of the joint with concrete. In the metallic type of connection, the forces are transferred by welding together steel insertion elements anchored inside the units being joined.

metal construction welded connections, which are the most common, riveted connections, and bolted connections are the principal types. The use of welded connections in structures subject to alternating or dynamic loads, for example, bridge sand the booms of heavy-duty cranes, is limited in view of the adverse effect of such loads on the durability of welded joints. In riveted connections, forces are transferred either directly through the members being joined, as in a lap joint, or by means of additional plates, as in a butt joint. Bolted connections are used mainly in assembly; their design and functioning is similar to that of riveted connections. Bolted connections using high-strength bolts made from heat-treated steel are very effective.

beam to column rigid joints

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20-Foot-Tall Steelworkers of Iron

Titled “The Workers,” the giant angular metal men are meant to forge a connection between Pittsburgh’s old labor force and its new artistic denizens.

The Workers, a sculpture of two 20-foot-tall metal men and a big steel mill ladle. The sculptures were set into place on Labor Day weekend 2012.

The materials were free, moving them was costly. Each of the workers weighs 10,000 pounds and the ladle weighs 20 tons.

The worker on the right is the Pourer. The worker on the left is the Puddler.  (The slag congealed on the lip of the ladle is real.) 

Image result for metal statues in pittsburgh 

Artist: Tim Kaulen: is a co-founder of the Industrial Arts Co-Op, a seminal local group that in the mid-1990s began creating large experimental sculptures in Pittsburgh’s abandoned mills, factories and warehouses. Mostly using materials found on site, the group has built a reputation around several high-profile efforts.

Two metal steelworkers each stand 20 feet tall and are made from four tons apiece of scrap metal, mostly steel and iron girders from a nearby bridge. The sculpture also includes an authentic tool used in the manufacturing of steel. They stand as if pouring molten steel from a 15-ton hot metal ladle, salvaged from a local steel mill, which now tips into a bed of flowers.

The statues, which look like beta test version Decepticons, took 15 years to complete, mostly because their costs ballooned from $25k to $200k.

The Workers were constructed with symbolic meaning. The metal used to build the giants was recycled from Pittsburgh’s steel infrastructure. The spot where the sculpture stands is a park that used to be a rail yard that serviced the Pittsburgh mills. The Workers had to be huge so that they would dwarf the ladle (reversing the usual size relationship) to show humankind’s ascendancy over industry.

The artist, Tim Kaulen generously stresses to emphasize that the project was a group effort. This project is the result of a community wide collaboration, with tremendous support from the artist, Industrial Arts Coop members, the City of Pittsburgh, Office of Public Art, Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council, Volunteer Lawyers for the Arts, PJ Dick Construction, and many, many public and private funders.

Twenty-four different artists, part of a regional arts collective named the Industrial Arts Co-op, lent their hands to design, assemble, cut, weld, adjust, bolt, grind, and sandblast the sculpture.


Intended to commemorate the region’s steel heritage, this 15-year project shouldn’t be seen as a memorial to Big Steel, but rather a link between Pittsburgh’s industrial past and its artistic present. Regardless of the clothes worn in our jobs, we still follow the same work ethic.the sculpture consists of two 18’x 6’ steel figures fashioned from iron reclaimed from the local industrial landscape and the renovated Hot Metal Street Bridge. The sculpture has been installed on the site of a former steel mill site as a tribute to Pittsburgh’s labor and industry heritage.

The Southside Works Sculpture Project commemorates the rich industrial steel heritage of the Pittsburgh region and honors the individuals who contributed to it, while at the same time, celebrates the present-day transformation of one of this country’s most important cities into a contemporary, stimulating place for people to live, work, and perhaps most importantly, contribute. The project uniquely captures the essence of Pittsburgh’s glorious steel heritage and creates a welcome addition of Pittsburgh-based public art.

Address: Three Rivers Heritage Trail, Pittsburgh, PA
Directions: On the south side of the Monongahela River in Southside Riverfront Park. From Hwy 837/E. Carson St. turn north onto S. 18th St. Drive six blocks, then cross the train tracks and enter the park. Follow the road as it turns sharply right. Drive a quarter-mile to the parking area, where the statues stand.
Admission: Free






Structural Steel Checker

Why is checking steel shop drawings important?

Steel shop drawings cannot be interpreted the way detailed drawings are able to be understood by the fabrication shop. They are specialized, precise, instructions to the fabricator. Checking is therefore very important, as the entire geometry of the building is generally in the control the steel detailer. The checker reduces the chance of individual errors.

Qualifications required for a checker:

1. Experience in steel fabrication procedures

2. Strong geometry skills

3. Attention to detail

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Areas to focus on:

1. Design compliance

2. Geometric accuracy

3. Buildabilitiy

Recommended checking procedures:

Check primary building datums first, (an engineering and drafting datum is, a reference point, surface, or axis on an object against which measurements are made.)

This often requires the checker to create his own layout:

1.Bay spacing


1.Roof pitch

The following items fit in around a datum: (If the primary datum is correct, there is little chance of the detailer making a major mistake.)

2. Check secondary building datum

3. Column, rafter, bracing member sizes

4. Bracing set-out

5. Purlin member sizes and spacing: (longitudinal, horizontal, structural member in a roof, except a type of framing with what is called a crown plate).

6. Bolt size

7. Plate size

Every number must be checked. Therefore it is advantageous to have a thorough method of communication from the checker back to the detailer.

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Drawing markup method:

A well marked up drawing is an excellent way of communication from the checker:

1. If a checker agrees with a number, the number is highlighted in blue pencil.

2. If a checker disagrees with a number or line-work, it is marked up in red pen.

3. If the checker has a comment to make, it is written in normal pencil.

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The color-system checking process:

Ultimately the detailer is responsible for the integrity of the drawing, which could result in one person having too much geometric responsibility.

The following is a process that has been proven, to be a way of reducing errors to an acceptable level:

1. The checker marks up the drawings, as described above:

2. If the detailer agrees with the checkers red markups the area is then marked with yellow highlighter. 

3. Red markups the detailer disagrees with, are marked with orange highlighter.

4. The completed drawing and the markups are returned to the Checker.

5. Orange markups are discussed with the detailer until there is a resolution. upon completion, the checker signs the final drawing.

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Typical parts of a shop drawing set:

The following drawing sections need to be checked:

1. Assembly drawings

2. Single parts

3. Purlin orders

4. Holding down bolt plan

5. General arrangement plan

6. End wall-building elevations

7. Field bolt list

8. Drawing index

Checking of steel structural drawings for industrial, residential and

commercial complexes structures like column, beam, bracing, trusses,

miscellaneous, etc., using Tekla Structures with complete deliverable

documents as per client requirements.

  •  Fabrication drawing delivery in charge.
  • Preparation of RFI & queries related to the project including: missing dimensions, member placements and connections.
  • Monitoring the progress of the project at various stages of work in modeling, editing, checking & delivering the drawings.
  • Preparation & checking of erection drawing.
  • Preparation of material take off.